openbsc.git branch jerlbeck/wip/gprs-patching updated. 0.13.0-877-g2eb4ee2

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Tue Jan 13 15:56:31 UTC 2015

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- Log -----------------------------------------------------------------

commit 2eb4ee28fce464f60231209d4cacfa18400ac9a6
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Tue Sep 30 13:53:26 2014 +0200

    sgsn: Added TODOs (TODO)
      - fix and remove TODOs
      - add test cases for Detach(reattach)
      - add test cases for PDP context deletion (OW#1311)
      - add test cases for Cancel pending timer in sgsn_mm_ctx_free
      - remove this commit
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 11c8dcd10f3fd98f054ef2918d49798274ffbfd8
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Fri Oct 17 10:08:02 2014 +0200

    sgsn: Do not die in _bssgp_tx_dl_ud on TLLI mismatch (TODO)
    Currently an OSMO_ASSERT fails, if the message's and the mmctx's
    TLLIs do not match.
    This commit turns the assertion into an ERROR log message and uses
    the default values for IMSI, DRX, and RA CAP instead of the MM
    context values in this case.
      - find the real source for the problem
      - add test cases derived from what is being described in the ticket
    Ticket: OW#1322
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit f09050db39ea04dfa67e3595a3b41f7a59661c03
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Wed Dec 17 14:03:35 2014 +0100

    sgsn: Add PDP info to subscriber data (TODO)
      - commit message
      - raw binary representation ???
      - tests
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 872b45b49b8620d114d38cfb7d170f78b316e24b
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Fri Dec 19 19:11:20 2014 +0100

    sgsn: Add logging to connect_timer_cb (TODO)
      - LOGLevel ?
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit f17c812f882a37bda959118cace5c9c2a1cc3d62
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Tue Jan 13 11:56:28 2015 +0100

    gprs: Fix GSUP msgb freeing
    Currently the code relies on the lower layers (socket read) to free
    the msgb after the callbacks have been processed linke it is being
    done in the NS layer. Unfortunately the IPA client connection
    implementation does this differently so the current msgb handling in
    the GSUP related code in broken at the moment and leaks msgbs.
    This patch adds missing calls to msgb_free.
    The talloc report in sgsn_test no longer contains msgbs.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit f75a490a5bc0d36803593add58a7fc8f1368c7d0
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Tue Jan 13 11:46:32 2015 +0100

    sgsn/test: Add checks and reports to detect leakage
    This commit adds talloc reports to log remaining chunks after the
    testing has been finished. It also adds explicit checks for an empty
    subscriber list.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 829f83d5e77d59706e39268f73109db1321ee6e8
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Fri Jan 9 09:46:43 2015 +0100

    sgsn/doc: Add message definitions for PURGE_MS responses
    Currently the definitions of the message PURGE_MS_RES and
    PURGE_MS_ERR are missing in the specification.
    This patch adds those definitions.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 6fc9f67182d4c77e77d51dc89f5b1a8e19df7431
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Thu Jan 8 15:29:01 2015 +0100

    gprs: Support the full cancellation procedure (TODO)
      - Commit message
      - Reply to cancellation request (either with RES or ERR)
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 84063c3aaf55626231ba2a392d52709919a33ee1
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Thu Jan 8 16:23:25 2015 +0100

    gprs: Block other GSUP procedures during PURGE_MS (TODO)
      - commit message
      - move LOGGSUBSCRP fix in gprs_subscr_purge to HEAD^^
      - testing
    Ticket: OW#????
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 339e30b1401efe55b7412876bfb1ced493a5f0fa
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Thu Jan 8 15:18:39 2015 +0100

    gprs: Retry PURGE_MS procedure after timeout
    Currently, when the PURGE_MS_REQ to the HLR gets lost (e.g. by a
    connection or peer failure), the expired subscriber entry will not get
    This commit adds a retry mechanism then restarts the procedure after
    a timeout (currently 10s). The maximum number of retries is limited
    (currently to 3 PURGE_MS messages). If none of these procedures is
    completed (either with success or error), the subscriber data is
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit fee76dc614eb42e341bf2f7604c0735b59830f37
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Tue Jan 6 16:32:41 2015 +0100

    gprs: Support PURGE MS messages (TODO)
    When a subscriber entry is going to be deleted by SGSN and when the
    subscriber info has been optained from a remote peer via GSUP, the
    peer should be informed before the entry is really deleted. For this
    purpose, MAP defines the PURGE MS procedure (see GSM 09.02, 19.1.4).
    This patch adds support for the PURGE_MS_REQ/_ERR/_RES messages and
    invokes the procedure when the subscriber entry is going to be
    removed. This only applies, if GSUP is being used, the Update
    Location procedure has been completed successfully, and the
    subscriber has not been cancelled. The removal of the entry is
    delayed until a PURGE_MS_RES or PURGE_MS_ERR message is received.
      - commit message
      - expire ununsed MM contexts (other commit)
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit b331205e1d4ad569563900520632b4d3493be721
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Fri Jan 9 15:07:16 2015 +0100

    sgsn/test: Add test that intercepts gprs_gsup_client_send
    This test replaces gprs_gsup_client_send by a custom function, that
    emulates a GSUP remote peer by calling gprs_subscr_rx_gsup_message
    with responses for all requests. It then executes a full
    Attach/Detach cycle.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit d1e0a4229184ee84114060c0ab0f948689a32917
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Tue Jan 6 16:32:41 2015 +0100

    gprs: Add expiry timeout for subscriber entries
    Set the expiry delay after the subscriber has been deleted (e.g. by
    freeing the MM context). If cancelled, the subscriber will be deleted
    immediately and no timeout will be set. If the expiry time is set to
    SGSN_TIMEOUT_NEVER, no timer will be started and the subscriber entry
    will be kept until it is cancelled.
    The following VTY command is added to the sgsn node:
      - subscriber-expiry-time <0-999999>    set expiry time in seconds
      - no subscriber-expiry-time            set to SGSN_TIMEOUT_NEVER
    The default is an expiry time of 0 seconds, which means that the
    subscriber entries are wiped out immediately after an MM context is
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 78318bc48628e616e06f3ae4a852816576fa32e0
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Fri Jan 9 11:59:50 2015 +0100

    sgsn/test: Refactor subscriber test
    The code sequence that checks, whether a subscriber is still
    reachable for a given IMSI, is repeated several times.
    This patch puts this code sequence into a single function and adds a
    check for the IMSI after the entry has been found. In addition,
    some comments are extended.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 861ae1d2e82e19432bdec6659df1b0f092ba6b92
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Thu Jan 8 14:13:46 2015 +0100

    sgsn/test: Fix subscriber cleanup
    Currently the subscribers are not really deleted by
    cleanup_subscr_by_imsi, but kept in RAM instead.
    This patch fixes this and adds a test to verify, that the subscriber
    is really deleted afterwards.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 0e73459fb2d544f09f6819560477ba63a8216912
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Thu Jan 8 14:08:16 2015 +0100

    gprs/test: Move subscr cleanup code into a separate function
    Refactor several occurences of the same subscriber cleanup code into
    a seperate cleanup_subscr_by_imsi function.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 27f69157b043394425e4a885be646d8e6439d62b
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Mon Jan 5 16:20:47 2015 +0100

    gprs: Pass GMM causes related to the MSC connection
    Currently the error causes MSC_TEMP_NOTREACH, NET_FAIL, and
    CONGESTION are silently dropped to force the MS to continue. On the
    other hand, GSM 04.08/24.008, in combination with,
    require the MS to retry the attachment procedure for cause codes
    above 15 instead of disabling GPRS. All of the mentioned GMM causes
    have codes above 15, so using a REJECT message including the cause
    code is a better choice. This way, the retry algorithm based on T3311
    (15s, 5 times) and T3302 (default 12min) could be used.
    This patch modifies gprs_subscr_handle_gsup_auth_err and
    gprs_subscr_handle_gsup_upd_loc_err to proceed like when the access
    has beed denied, except that the corresponding subscriber's
    information fields are not cleared.
    This has been successfully tested which an iphone which enters a
    retry loop as it is being described in the specification.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 285ee97c76471cef0f4af747b3357f794785ca6d
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Tue Dec 23 14:24:16 2014 +0100

    gprs: Use LOGGSUBSCRP and LOGMMCTX for logging in gprs_susbcriber.c
    To unify the layout of the logging messages in gprs_subscriber.c,
    this patch replaces each LOGP by LOGGSUBSCRP, unless a non-NULL
    pointer to a subscr is not available. In those cases, it uses
    LOGMMCTXP if a pointer to an MM context is available or LOGP
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit af3014f08ec7412ad54b90252579adc86b9ae99c
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Thu Jan 8 12:02:12 2015 +0100

    gprs: Add LOGGSUBSCRP macro to log subscriber info
    This patch adds a new logging macro, that logs to DGPRS and provides
    a uniform prefix containing the IMSI without using the mm reference.
    This is an improvement over using LOGMMCTXP, since the new macro also
    provides an IMSI if no MM context is attached.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 343b6c9bc5eb60ec838351c3a72ce13cc5e0eb51
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Mon Jan 5 18:57:32 2015 +0100

    gprs: Let GSUP parser functions return GMM causes on errors
    Currently the GSUP message handling function in gprs_subscriber.c and
    the functions in gprs_gsup_messages.c are not consistent with respect
    to the return codes if an error happens. Albeit all error return
    codes are negative, the semantics of the absolute value are not
    clearly defined. In addition, some return codes are not passed to the
    calling function.
    This path changes these functions to always return a negated GMM
    cause value in case of errors. Return values of called parser
    functions are not longer ignored.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 35961439f25e09653ebd0192634235d397914b95
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Mon Jan 5 18:38:41 2015 +0100

    gprs: Use the cause value in  GSUP error messages
    Currently always a cause with the meaning of 'access denied' is
    assumed. gprs_subscr_handle_gsup_auth_err just clears the auth
    triplets and the authorized flag before calling the update function.
    gprs_subscr_handle_gsup_upd_loc_err only clears the authorized flag
    and calls the update function. This means, that an MS will not retry
    to attach even on temporary network errors.
    This patch changes these functions to use the GSUP error cause value
    to decide, whether to clear the corresponding subscriber fields, to
    just continue with the corresponding update function, or to log,
    ignore and not pass the cause to the MS in case the error is directly
    related to the GSUP protocol. The subscriber's error_cause field is
    updated, if the update function is going to be called. The
    error_cause fielt is reset on non-error GSUP messages.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit d52aa3ae5ceef7ef3a943c0d9835d08c7bea06cb
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Mon Jan 5 17:51:17 2015 +0100

    gprs: Pass subscriber error causes to the GMM layer
    This patch extends gsm0408_gprs_access_denied and
    gsm0408_gprs_access_cancelled to accept GMM cause codes. These are
    then passed to the MS, unless gsm0408_gprs_access_cancelled is called
    with cause 0 (no error -> updateProcedure).
    Since gsm0408_gprs_access_denied uses GMM_CAUSE_GPRS_NOTALLOWED if
    the cause is not set, and the subscriber's error_cause is never set
    (and thus always 0), the SGSN's behaviour does not change with this
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 1ce3ecbb31b5883bd72c56ac4b280e094bfe5ccf
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Mon Jan 5 17:30:02 2015 +0100

    gprs: Move protocol value_strings to gsm_04_08_gprs.c
    Currently the mapping between GSM 04.08 (GPRS) protocol specific
    numbers and their textual description was put into gprs_gmm.c and not
    This commit moves the mappings to a new file gsm_04_08_gprs.c,
    renames some of them, and exports them via gsm_04_08_gprs.h.
    The following identifiers are renamed to match the corresponding type
      - gmm_cause_names -> gsm48_gmm_cause_names
      - gsm_cause_names -> gsm48_gsm_cause_names
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit bbb44231295c3d0dc03c2461e4660028956be03e
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Fri Dec 19 19:19:46 2014 +0100

    sgsn: Show GSUP client info on 'show sgsn'
    This commit adds a line to the output of 'show sgsn' if the GSUP
    client has been initialized:
      - Remote authorization: [not] connected to HOST:PORT via GSUP
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 12173e836bef5821e8ac95cbb2a84b76ca295c45
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Fri Dec 19 19:18:54 2014 +0100

    sgsn: Send PING and eventually reconnect
    Currently, the reconnect mechanism relies on gsup_client_updown_cb
    which in turn gets called based on the OS' view of connection state.
    This patch adds a timer based PING mechanism that regularly sends
    PING messages and forces a reconnect if a PONG message won't be
    received until the next PING message is scheduled. The current ping
    interval is 20s.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit c82af7ed9b976783fdc6245e1e6bd86527529d79
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Fri Dec 19 19:15:55 2014 +0100

    sgsn: Handle incoming IPA CCM message in gsup_client_read_cb
    Currently the IPA CCM messages are not handled by the GSUP client.
    This means, that the client doesn't answer to PING and ID_GET and
    logs notices when receiving PONG or ID_ACK. At least the PING
    functionality (remotely originated PING) shall be supported.
    This patch extends gsup_client_read_cb by a call to
    ipaccess_bts_handle_ccm. Only when the return code is 0, the message
    is processed further and checked for an OSMO/GSUP message. ID_GET
    messages are answered by a dummy description, where only the
    unit_name is set to 'SGSN'.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 0bededf3fe61fe25af2c130e47ebb0f2cd2a36c4
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Fri Dec 19 19:00:56 2014 +0100

    sgsn: Handle return code of ipa_client_conn_open correctly
    The ipa_client_conn_open function does not distinguish between a
    connection being already established or waiting for establishment.
    In either case, the application gets informed about the connection
    state via the updown_cb. The 'up' parameter is only set, if
    poll/select consider the socket as writable.
    This patch handles both cases equally and fully relies on the
    updown_cb to adjust the gsupc obejct state.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit ed2e4de87f8e6468592146df63e92fe63cae5d6d
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Fri Dec 19 18:50:05 2014 +0100

    sgsn: Avoid sending stale GSUP requests after reconnect
    Currently, messages are added to the tx queue even if the connection
    is down for some reason and all of these messages are eventually sent
    after a re-connect.  The MS has probably sent several Attach Requests
    while the connection was down and will continue doing so. Therefore
    these stored messages could be dropped.
    This patch clears the queue before re-connecting and also extends
    gprs_gsup_client_send to return immediately, when the connection is
    not established instead of calling ipa_client_conn_send.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit f0c08a363f6c8e84dcc4117c7108ff27159fa50a
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Thu Dec 18 15:00:29 2014 +0100

    sgsn: Add automatic re-connect if the GSUP connection is down
    Currently the GSUP connection to a server is not restarted if the
    connection cannot be established or is terminated during operation.
    This commit adds a timer based connection mechanism, basically
    consisting of a timer callback that calls gsup_client_connect. The
    timer is eventually triggered (up == 0) or cleared (up != 0) by
    gsup_client_updown_cb. It adds calls to osmo_timer_del() to
    gsup_client_connect and gprs_gsup_client_destroy. The latter is now
    called instead of talloc_free in gprs_gsup_client_create on error to
    be on the safe side.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 9c344c709536551f2a632d4872c26a7a1c32b685
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Fri Dec 19 18:30:41 2014 +0100

    sgsn/test: Extend tests to simulate lost GSUP requests
    This patch extends test_gmm_attach to optionally resend Attach
    Requests until the SGSN responds to it instead of calling
    OSMO_ASSERT at a few places. The test_gmm_attach_subscr_gsup_auth
    test optionally uses this feature. It is called once in either mode.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit af2030b4ff24914fe62a8149447f7c914f62185d
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Fri Dec 19 18:26:09 2014 +0100

    sgsn/test: Add GMM test for a GSUP based attach procedure
    This test calls test_gmm_attach() where the mocked subscriber
    functions insert GSUP messages instead of manipulating the
    subscriber structure directly.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 997ec59c14f6d5a68cf344d4a4e96d304d8578dc
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Fri Dec 19 18:19:50 2014 +0100

    sgsn/test: Add wrapper for gprs_subscr_rx_gsup_message
    Currently, several lines of boiler plate are needed around a call to
    This patch puts all of this (including the call to
    gprs_subscr_rx_gsup_message) into a separate function.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit a278ef42ac38d3f2945c27763063d6ace84d29f1
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Fri Dec 19 18:08:48 2014 +0100

    sgsn: Add global require_update_location flag
    This flag is used to determine, whether the Update Location procedure
    shall be invoked. This is currently only set, when the 'remote'
    authorization policy is set. When the flag is set, sgsn_auth_update
    will not never be called directly by sgsn_auth_request, if an Attach
    Request procedure is pending, even if the remote connection fails for
    some reason.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 09ebc580c02c361076d1df9678913b800eb441da
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Wed Dec 17 13:20:08 2014 +0100

    sgsn: Replace subscr.authenticate by global require_authentication flag
    Currently the flag 'authenticate' is managed per subscriber.
    This patch replaces that flag by a global cfg.require_authentication
    flag that enables/disables the use of the Auth & Ciph procedure for
    every subscriber. The flag is set by the VTY, if and only if the
    authorization policy is 'remote'.
    The VTY command
      - update-subscriber imsi IMSI insert authenticate <0-1>
    is removed.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 75973f7cf58d9011666a264f1a60f0c31f4a76fc
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Thu Dec 18 12:46:47 2014 +0100

    sgsn: Integrate the GSUP client into the SGSN
    This commit adds GSUP client configuration (via VTY), connection set
    up, and real message sending.
    The following configuration commands are added:
     - gsup remote-ip A.B.C.D            set server IP address
     - gsup remote-port PORT             set server TCP port
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit fd0134c8622110678b524ebeb6d889b68d0639c7
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Thu Dec 18 12:28:21 2014 +0100

    sgsn: Add GSUP client
    This commit adds the client code to get subscriber information from a
    remote server. It provides an IPA over TCP connection to transmit and
    receive GSUP messages.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 3a6aa7f3b7e74bd7ed9089bddb81bd91cd948d81
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Mon Jan 12 13:54:39 2015 +0100

    gprs: Clear GSUP message structures before decoding
    Currently the message structure is not cleared before the message is
    parsed which can cause information leaking between messages if the
    same gprs_gsup_message object is used. Especially list elements (auth
    tuples and pdp info) are not replaced by an IE, but the IE is
    This patch uses the assignment operator to clear gprs_gsup_message,
    gsm_auth_tuple, and gprs_gsup_pdp_info before using them. This also
    replaces the use of memcpy of the latter.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit d3e7137cc2168ec99e4de7a31f481cce6a76da09
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Mon Jan 12 13:39:15 2015 +0100

    gprs: Always reset auth tuples/pdp infos in gprs_gsup_decode
    Currently auth tuples are always appended to the lists when
    gprs_gsup_decode is called with a gsup_msg structure. This makes a
    test case fail, where the same gsup_msg is used again and again
    without clearing it after each use.
    Ticket: OW#????
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 74cd902cb970e64f25456f81b1c7899b15b53c4e
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Mon Jan 12 13:23:05 2015 +0100

    gprs: Handle empty GSUP messages correctly
    Currently, the gprs_gsup_decode function doesn't check the return
    value of gprs_shift_v_fixed before using the value pointer. The
    function fails, if the GSUP message length (not including IPA
    headers) is 0. In this case, a segfault can happen, depending on the
    value of the uninitialized 'value' pointer. The test case doesn't
    trigger a segfault, but valgrind complains about reading
    uninitialized data.
    This patch adds a check for the return value that would return with
    an error code if the shift function failed.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf

commit 6a7288c1d6779bf83f005f19f12e446ca17e24b6
Author: Jacob Erlbeck <jerlbeck at>
Date:   Mon Jan 12 11:14:18 2015 +0100

    gprs/test: Add tests for invalid GSUP messages
    Currently, the tests only use valid GSUP messages. This does not
    check the robustness of the parser.
    This commit adds a test for truncated messages and another for
    modified messages.
    Thanks to Holger for the basic truncation test.
    Sponsored-by: On-Waves ehf


Summary of changes:
 openbsc/                  |   5 +
 openbsc/src/gprs/gprs_gsup_client.c   |  17 ++-
 openbsc/src/gprs/gprs_gsup_messages.c |  18 ++-
 openbsc/src/gprs/gprs_subscriber.c    |  15 ++-
 openbsc/src/utils/         |  14 ++-
 openbsc/tests/gprs/gprs_test.c        |  92 +++++++++++++++
 openbsc/tests/sgsn/        |   3 +-
 openbsc/tests/sgsn/sgsn_test.c        | 209 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
 openbsc/tests/sgsn/sgsn_test.ok       |   1 +
 9 files changed, 330 insertions(+), 44 deletions(-)

The OpenBSC GSM Base Station Controller (+MSC/HLR/SGSN)

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