Change in pysim[master]: Add more documentation to the classes/methods

laforge gerrit-no-reply at lists.osmocom.org
Fri Apr 2 20:15:45 UTC 2021


laforge has submitted this change. ( https://gerrit.osmocom.org/c/pysim/+/23577 )

Change subject: Add more documentation to the classes/methods
......................................................................

Add more documentation to the classes/methods

* add type annotations in-line with PEP484
* convert existing documentation to follow the
  "Google Python Style Guide" format understood by
  the sphinx.ext.napoleon' extension
* add much more documentation all over the code base

Change-Id: I6ac88e0662cf3c56ae32d86d50b18a8b4150571a
---
M pySim/commands.py
M pySim/exceptions.py
M pySim/filesystem.py
M pySim/transport/__init__.py
M pySim/transport/calypso.py
M pySim/transport/modem_atcmd.py
M pySim/transport/pcsc.py
M pySim/transport/serial.py
M pySim/utils.py
9 files changed, 635 insertions(+), 185 deletions(-)

Approvals:
  Jenkins Builder: Verified
  laforge: Looks good to me, approved



diff --git a/pySim/commands.py b/pySim/commands.py
index 5184a77..7919099 100644
--- a/pySim/commands.py
+++ b/pySim/commands.py
@@ -65,7 +65,7 @@
 	# from what SIMs responds. See also:
 	# USIM: ETSI TS 102 221, chapter 11.1.1.3 Response Data
 	# SIM: GSM 11.11, chapter 9.2.1 SELECT
-	def __record_len(self, r):
+	def __record_len(self, r) -> int:
 		if self.sel_ctrl == "0004":
 			tlv_parsed = self.__parse_fcp(r[-1])
 			file_descriptor = tlv_parsed['82']
@@ -76,14 +76,15 @@
 
 	# Tell the length of a binary file. See also comment
 	# above.
-	def __len(self, r):
+	def __len(self, r) -> int:
 		if self.sel_ctrl == "0004":
 			tlv_parsed = self.__parse_fcp(r[-1])
 			return int(tlv_parsed['80'], 16)
 		else:
 			return int(r[-1][4:8], 16)
 
-	def get_atr(self):
+	def get_atr(self) -> str:
+		"""Return the ATR of the currently inserted card."""
 		return self._tp.get_atr()
 
 	@property
@@ -101,6 +102,7 @@
 		self._sel_ctrl = value
 
 	def try_select_path(self, dir_list):
+		""" Try to select a specified path given as list of hex-string FIDs"""
 		rv = []
 		if type(dir_list) is not list:
 			dir_list = [dir_list]
@@ -112,6 +114,14 @@
 		return rv
 
 	def select_path(self, dir_list):
+		"""Execute SELECT for an entire list/path of FIDs.
+
+		Args:
+			dir_list: list of FIDs representing the path to select
+
+		Returns:
+			list of return values (FCP in hex encoding) for each element of the path
+		"""
 		rv = []
 		if type(dir_list) is not list:
 			dir_list = [dir_list]
@@ -120,14 +130,23 @@
 			rv.append(data)
 		return rv
 
-	def select_file(self, fid):
+	def select_file(self, fid:str):
+		"""Execute SELECT a given file by FID."""
 		return self._tp.send_apdu_checksw(self.cla_byte + "a4" + self.sel_ctrl + "02" + fid)
 
-	def select_adf(self, aid):
+	def select_adf(self, aid:str):
+		"""Execute SELECT a given Applicaiton ADF."""
 		aidlen = ("0" + format(len(aid) // 2, 'x'))[-2:]
 		return self._tp.send_apdu_checksw(self.cla_byte + "a4" + "0404" + aidlen + aid)
 
-	def read_binary(self, ef, length=None, offset=0):
+	def read_binary(self, ef, length:int=None, offset:int=0):
+		"""Execute READD BINARY.
+
+		Args:
+			ef : string or list of strings indicating name or path of transparent EF
+			length : number of bytes to read
+			offset : byte offset in file from which to start reading
+		"""
 		r = self.select_path(ef)
 		if len(r[-1]) == 0:
 			return (None, None)
@@ -145,7 +164,15 @@
 				raise ValueError('Failed to read (offset %d)' % (offset))
 		return total_data, sw
 
-	def update_binary(self, ef, data, offset=0, verify=False, conserve=False):
+	def update_binary(self, ef, data:str, offset:int=0, verify:bool=False, conserve:bool=False):
+		"""Execute UPDATE BINARY.
+
+		Args:
+			ef : string or list of strings indicating name or path of transparent EF
+			data : hex string of data to be written
+			offset : byte offset in file from which to start writing
+			verify : Whether or not to verify data after write
+		"""
 		data_length = len(data) // 2
 
 		# Save write cycles by reading+comparing before write
@@ -161,18 +188,32 @@
 			self.verify_binary(ef, data, offset)
 		return res
 
-	def verify_binary(self, ef, data, offset=0):
+	def verify_binary(self, ef, data:str, offset:int=0):
+		"""Verify contents of transparent EF.
+
+		Args:
+			ef : string or list of strings indicating name or path of transparent EF
+			data : hex string of expected data
+			offset : byte offset in file from which to start verifying
+		"""
 		res = self.read_binary(ef, len(data) // 2, offset)
 		if res[0].lower() != data.lower():
 			raise ValueError('Binary verification failed (expected %s, got %s)' % (data.lower(), res[0].lower()))
 
-	def read_record(self, ef, rec_no):
+	def read_record(self, ef, rec_no:int):
+		"""Execute READ RECORD.
+
+		Args:
+			ef : string or list of strings indicating name or path of linear fixed EF
+			rec_no : record number to read
+		"""
 		r = self.select_path(ef)
 		rec_length = self.__record_len(r)
 		pdu = self.cla_byte + 'b2%02x04%02x' % (rec_no, rec_length)
 		return self._tp.send_apdu(pdu)
 
-	def update_record(self, ef, rec_no, data, force_len=False, verify=False, conserve=False):
+	def update_record(self, ef, rec_no:int, data:str, force_len:bool=False, verify:bool=False,
+					  conserve:bool=False):
 		r = self.select_path(ef)
 		if not force_len:
 			rec_length = self.__record_len(r)
@@ -194,30 +235,47 @@
 			self.verify_record(ef, rec_no, data)
 		return res
 
-	def verify_record(self, ef, rec_no, data):
+	def verify_record(self, ef, rec_no:int, data:str):
 		res = self.read_record(ef, rec_no)
 		if res[0].lower() != data.lower():
 			raise ValueError('Record verification failed (expected %s, got %s)' % (data.lower(), res[0].lower()))
 
 	def record_size(self, ef):
+		"""Determine the record size of given file.
+
+		Args:
+			ef : string or list of strings indicating name or path of linear fixed EF
+		"""
 		r = self.select_path(ef)
 		return self.__record_len(r)
 
 	def record_count(self, ef):
+		"""Determine the number of records in given file.
+
+		Args:
+			ef : string or list of strings indicating name or path of linear fixed EF
+		"""
 		r = self.select_path(ef)
 		return self.__len(r) // self.__record_len(r)
 
 	def binary_size(self, ef):
+		"""Determine the size of given transparent file.
+
+		Args:
+			ef : string or list of strings indicating name or path of transparent EF
+		"""
 		r = self.select_path(ef)
 		return self.__len(r)
 
-	def run_gsm(self, rand):
+	def run_gsm(self, rand:str):
+		"""Execute RUN GSM ALGORITHM."""
 		if len(rand) != 32:
 			raise ValueError('Invalid rand')
 		self.select_path(['3f00', '7f20'])
 		return self._tp.send_apdu(self.cla_byte + '88000010' + rand)
 
 	def reset_card(self):
+		"""Physically reset the card"""
 		return self._tp.reset_card()
 
 	def _chv_process_sw(self, op_name, chv_no, pin_code, sw):
@@ -227,31 +285,36 @@
 		elif (sw != '9000'):
 			raise SwMatchError(sw, '9000')
 
-	def verify_chv(self, chv_no, pin_code):
-		fc = rpad(b2h(pin_code), 16)
+	def verify_chv(self, chv_no:int, code:str):
+		"""Verify a given CHV (Card Holder Verification == PIN)"""
+		fc = rpad(b2h(code), 16)
 		data, sw = self._tp.send_apdu(self.cla_byte + '2000' + ('%02X' % chv_no) + '08' + fc)
-		self._chv_process_sw('verify', chv_no, pin_code, sw)
+		self._chv_process_sw('verify', chv_no, code, sw)
 		return (data, sw)
 
-	def unblock_chv(self, chv_no, puk_code, pin_code):
+	def unblock_chv(self, chv_no:int, puk_code:str, pin_code:str):
+		"""Unblock a given CHV (Card Holder Verification == PIN)"""
 		fc = rpad(b2h(puk_code), 16) + rpad(b2h(pin_code), 16)
 		data, sw = self._tp.send_apdu(self.cla_byte + '2C00' + ('%02X' % chv_no) + '10' + fc)
 		self._chv_process_sw('unblock', chv_no, pin_code, sw)
 		return (data, sw)
 
-	def change_chv(self, chv_no, pin_code, new_pin_code):
+	def change_chv(self, chv_no:int, pin_code:str, new_pin_code:str):
+		"""Change a given CHV (Card Holder Verification == PIN)"""
 		fc = rpad(b2h(pin_code), 16) + rpad(b2h(new_pin_code), 16)
 		data, sw = self._tp.send_apdu(self.cla_byte + '2400' + ('%02X' % chv_no) + '10' + fc)
 		self._chv_process_sw('change', chv_no, pin_code, sw)
 		return (data, sw)
 
-	def disable_chv(self, chv_no, pin_code):
+	def disable_chv(self, chv_no:int, pin_code:str):
+		"""Disable a given CHV (Card Holder Verification == PIN)"""
 		fc = rpad(b2h(pin_code), 16)
 		data, sw = self._tp.send_apdu(self.cla_byte + '2600' + ('%02X' % chv_no) + '08' + fc)
 		self._chv_process_sw('disable', chv_no, pin_code, sw)
 		return (data, sw)
 
-	def enable_chv(self, chv_no, pin_code):
+	def enable_chv(self, chv_no:int, pin_code:str):
+		"""Enable a given CHV (Card Holder Verification == PIN)"""
 		fc = rpad(b2h(pin_code), 16)
 		data, sw = self._tp.send_apdu(self.cla_byte + '2800' + ('%02X' % chv_no) + '08' + fc)
 		self._chv_process_sw('enable', chv_no, pin_code, sw)
diff --git a/pySim/exceptions.py b/pySim/exceptions.py
index 4fb8f72..f1d1a18 100644
--- a/pySim/exceptions.py
+++ b/pySim/exceptions.py
@@ -22,18 +22,27 @@
 #
 
 class NoCardError(Exception):
+	"""No card was found in the reader."""
 	pass
 
 class ProtocolError(Exception):
+	"""Some kind of protocol level error interfacing with the card."""
 	pass
 
 class ReaderError(Exception):
+	"""Some kind of general error with the card reader."""
 	pass
 
 class SwMatchError(Exception):
 	"""Raised when an operation specifies an expected SW but the actual SW from
 	   the card doesn't match."""
-	def __init__(self, sw_actual, sw_expected, rs=None):
+	def __init__(self, sw_actual:str, sw_expected:str, rs=None):
+		"""
+		Args:
+			sw_actual : the SW we actually received from the card (4 hex digits)
+			sw_expected : the SW we expected to receive from the card (4 hex digits)
+			rs : interpreter class to convert SW to string
+		"""
 		self.sw_actual = sw_actual
 		self.sw_expected = sw_expected
 		self.rs = rs
diff --git a/pySim/filesystem.py b/pySim/filesystem.py
index e959c52..d1a7b51 100644
--- a/pySim/filesystem.py
+++ b/pySim/filesystem.py
@@ -31,6 +31,8 @@
 from cmd2 import CommandSet, with_default_category, with_argparser
 import argparse
 
+from typing import Optional, Iterable, List, Any, Tuple
+
 from pySim.utils import sw_match, h2b, b2h, is_hex
 from pySim.exceptions import *
 
@@ -41,7 +43,16 @@
     RESERVED_NAMES = ['..', '.', '/', 'MF']
     RESERVED_FIDS = ['3f00']
 
-    def __init__(self, fid=None, sfid=None, name=None, desc=None, parent=None):
+    def __init__(self, fid:str=None, sfid:str=None, name:str=None, desc:str=None,
+                 parent:Optional['CardDF']=None):
+        """
+        Args:
+            fid : File Identifier (4 hex digits)
+            sfid : Short File Identifier (2 hex digits, optional)
+            name : Brief name of the file, lik EF_ICCID
+            desc : Descriptoin of the file
+            parent : Parent CardFile object within filesystem hierarchy
+        """
         if not isinstance(self, CardADF) and fid == None:
             raise ValueError("fid is mandatory")
         if fid:
@@ -53,7 +64,7 @@
         self.parent = parent
         if self.parent and self.parent != self and self.fid:
             self.parent.add_file(self)
-        self.shell_commands = []
+        self.shell_commands: List[CommandSet] = []
 
 	# Note: the basic properties (fid, name, ect.) are verified when
 	# the file is attached to a parent file. See method add_file() in
@@ -65,14 +76,18 @@
         else:
             return self.fid
 
-    def _path_element(self, prefer_name):
+    def _path_element(self, prefer_name:bool) -> Optional[str]:
         if prefer_name and self.name:
             return self.name
         else:
             return self.fid
 
-    def fully_qualified_path(self, prefer_name=True):
-        """Return fully qualified path to file as list of FID or name strings."""
+    def fully_qualified_path(self, prefer_name:bool=True):
+        """Return fully qualified path to file as list of FID or name strings.
+
+        Args:
+            prefer_name : Preferably build path of names; fall-back to FIDs as required
+        """
         if self.parent != self:
             ret = self.parent.fully_qualified_path(prefer_name)
         else:
@@ -80,7 +95,7 @@
         ret.append(self._path_element(prefer_name))
         return ret
 
-    def get_mf(self):
+    def get_mf(self) -> Optional['CardMF']:
         """Return the MF (root) of the file system."""
         if self.parent == None:
             return None
@@ -90,8 +105,16 @@
             node = node.parent
         return node
 
-    def _get_self_selectables(self, alias=None, flags = []):
-        """Return a dict of {'identifier': self} tuples"""
+    def _get_self_selectables(self, alias:str=None, flags = []) -> dict:
+        """Return a dict of {'identifier': self} tuples.
+
+        Args:
+            alias : Add an alias with given name to 'self' 
+            flags : Specify which selectables to return 'FIDS' and/or 'NAMES';
+                    If not specified, all selectables will be returned.
+        Returns:
+            dict containing reference to 'self' for all identifiers.
+        """
         sels = {}
         if alias:
             sels.update({alias: self})
@@ -101,8 +124,16 @@
             sels.update({self.name: self})
         return sels
 
-    def get_selectables(self, flags = []):
-        """Return a dict of {'identifier': File} that is selectable from the current file."""
+    def get_selectables(self, flags = []) -> dict:
+        """Return a dict of {'identifier': File} that is selectable from the current file.
+
+        Args:
+            flags : Specify which selectables to return 'FIDS' and/or 'NAMES';
+                    If not specified, all selectables will be returned.
+        Returns:
+            dict containing all selectable items. Key is identifier (string), value
+            a reference to a CardFile (or derived class) instance.
+        """
         sels = {}
         # we can always select ourself
         if flags == [] or 'SELF' in flags:
@@ -118,12 +149,20 @@
                 sels.update(mf.get_app_selectables(flags = flags))
         return sels
 
-    def get_selectable_names(self, flags = []):
-        """Return a list of strings for all identifiers that are selectable from the current file."""
+    def get_selectable_names(self, flags = []) -> dict:
+        """Return a dict of {'identifier': File} that is selectable from the current file.
+
+        Args:
+            flags : Specify which selectables to return 'FIDS' and/or 'NAMES';
+                    If not specified, all selectables will be returned.
+        Returns:
+            dict containing all selectable items. Key is identifier (string), value
+            a reference to a CardFile (or derived class) instance.
+        """
         sels = self.get_selectables(flags)
         return sels.keys()
 
-    def decode_select_response(self, data_hex):
+    def decode_select_response(self, data_hex:str):
         """Decode the response to a SELECT command."""
         return self.parent.decode_select_response(data_hex)
 
@@ -147,8 +186,12 @@
     def __str__(self):
         return "DF(%s)" % (super().__str__())
 
-    def add_file(self, child, ignore_existing=False):
-        """Add a child (DF/EF) to this DF"""
+    def add_file(self, child:CardFile, ignore_existing:bool=False):
+        """Add a child (DF/EF) to this DF.
+        Args:
+            child: The new DF/EF to be added
+            ignore_existing: Ignore, if file with given FID already exists. Old one will be kept.
+        """
         if not isinstance(child, CardFile):
             raise TypeError("Expected a File instance")
         if not is_hex(child.fid, minlen = 4, maxlen = 4):
@@ -170,13 +213,26 @@
         self.children[child.fid] = child
         child.parent = self
 
-    def add_files(self, children, ignore_existing=False):
-        """Add a list of child (DF/EF) to this DF"""
+    def add_files(self, children:Iterable[CardFile], ignore_existing:bool=False):
+        """Add a list of child (DF/EF) to this DF
+
+        Args:
+            children: List of new DF/EFs to be added
+            ignore_existing: Ignore, if file[s] with given FID already exists. Old one[s] will be kept.
+        """
         for child in children:
             self.add_file(child, ignore_existing)
 
-    def get_selectables(self, flags = []):
-        """Get selectable (DF/EF names) from current DF"""
+    def get_selectables(self, flags = []) -> dict:
+        """Return a dict of {'identifier': File} that is selectable from the current DF.
+
+        Args:
+            flags : Specify which selectables to return 'FIDS' and/or 'NAMES';
+                    If not specified, all selectables will be returned.
+        Returns:
+            dict containing all selectable items. Key is identifier (string), value
+            a reference to a CardFile (or derived class) instance.
+        """
         # global selectables + our children
         sels = super().get_selectables(flags)
         if flags == [] or 'FIDS' in flags:
@@ -185,7 +241,8 @@
                 sels.update({x.name: x for x in self.children.values() if x.name})
         return sels
 
-    def lookup_file_by_name(self, name):
+    def lookup_file_by_name(self, name:str) -> Optional[CardFile]:
+        """Find a file with given name within current DF."""
         if name == None:
             return None
         for i in self.children.values():
@@ -193,7 +250,8 @@
                 return i
         return None
 
-    def lookup_file_by_sfid(self, sfid):
+    def lookup_file_by_sfid(self, sfid:str) -> Optional[CardFile]:
+        """Find a file with given short file ID within current DF."""
         if sfid == None:
             return None
         for i in self.children.values():
@@ -201,7 +259,8 @@
                 return i
         return None
 
-    def lookup_file_by_fid(self, fid):
+    def lookup_file_by_fid(self, fid:str) -> Optional[CardFile]:
+        """Find a file with given file ID within current DF."""
         if fid in self.children:
             return self.children[fid]
         return None
@@ -222,7 +281,7 @@
     def __str__(self):
         return "MF(%s)" % (self.fid)
 
-    def add_application(self, app):
+    def add_application(self, app:'CardADF'):
         """Add an ADF (Application Dedicated File) to the MF"""
         if not isinstance(app, CardADF):
             raise TypeError("Expected an ADF instance")
@@ -235,13 +294,21 @@
         """Get list of completions (AID names)"""
         return [x.name for x in self.applications]
 
-    def get_selectables(self, flags = []):
-        """Get list of completions (DF/EF/ADF names) from current DF"""
+    def get_selectables(self, flags = []) -> dict:
+        """Return a dict of {'identifier': File} that is selectable from the current DF.
+
+        Args:
+            flags : Specify which selectables to return 'FIDS' and/or 'NAMES';
+                    If not specified, all selectables will be returned.
+        Returns:
+            dict containing all selectable items. Key is identifier (string), value
+            a reference to a CardFile (or derived class) instance.
+        """
         sels = super().get_selectables(flags)
         sels.update(self.get_app_selectables(flags))
         return sels
 
-    def get_app_selectables(self, flags = []):
+    def get_app_selectables(self, flags = []) -> dict:
         """Get applications by AID + name"""
         sels = {}
         if flags == [] or 'AIDS' in flags:
@@ -250,15 +317,19 @@
                 sels.update({x.name: x for x in self.applications.values() if x.name})
         return sels
 
-    def decode_select_response(self, data_hex):
-        """Decode the response to a SELECT command."""
+    def decode_select_response(self, data_hex:str) -> Any:
+        """Decode the response to a SELECT command.
+
+        This is the fall-back method which doesn't perform any decoding. It mostly
+        exists so specific derived classes can overload it for actual decoding.
+        """
         return data_hex
 
 
 
 class CardADF(CardDF):
     """ADF (Application Dedicated File) in the smart card filesystem"""
-    def __init__(self, aid, **kwargs):
+    def __init__(self, aid:str, **kwargs):
         super().__init__(**kwargs)
         self.aid = aid           # Application Identifier
         if self.parent:
@@ -267,7 +338,7 @@
     def __str__(self):
         return "ADF(%s)" % (self.aid)
 
-    def _path_element(self, prefer_name):
+    def _path_element(self, prefer_name:bool):
         if self.name and prefer_name:
             return self.name
         else:
@@ -283,8 +354,16 @@
     def __str__(self):
         return "EF(%s)" % (super().__str__())
 
-    def get_selectables(self, flags = []):
-        """Get list of completions (EF names) from current DF"""
+    def get_selectables(self, flags = []) -> dict:
+        """Return a dict of {'identifier': File} that is selectable from the current DF.
+
+        Args:
+            flags : Specify which selectables to return 'FIDS' and/or 'NAMES';
+                    If not specified, all selectables will be returned.
+        Returns:
+            dict containing all selectable items. Key is identifier (string), value
+            a reference to a CardFile (or derived class) instance.
+        """
         #global selectable names + those of the parent DF
         sels = super().get_selectables(flags)
         sels.update({x.name:x for x in self.parent.children.values() if x != self})
@@ -292,10 +371,14 @@
 
 
 class TransparentEF(CardEF):
-    """Transparent EF (Entry File) in the smart card filesystem"""
+    """Transparent EF (Entry File) in the smart card filesystem.
+
+    A Transparent EF is a binary file with no formal structure.  This is contrary to
+    Record based EFs which have [fixed size] records that can be individually read/updated."""
 
     @with_default_category('Transparent EF Commands')
     class ShellCommands(CommandSet):
+        """Shell commands specific for Trransparent EFs."""
         def __init__(self):
             super().__init__()
 
@@ -333,13 +416,33 @@
             if data:
                 self._cmd.poutput(json.dumps(data, indent=4))
 
-    def __init__(self, fid, sfid=None, name=None, desc=None, parent=None, size={1,None}):
+    def __init__(self, fid:str, sfid:str=None, name:str=None, desc:str=None, parent:CardDF=None,
+                 size={1,None}):
+        """
+        Args:
+            fid : File Identifier (4 hex digits)
+            sfid : Short File Identifier (2 hex digits, optional)
+            name : Brief name of the file, lik EF_ICCID
+            desc : Descriptoin of the file
+            parent : Parent CardFile object within filesystem hierarchy
+            size : tuple of (minimum_size, recommended_size)
+        """
         super().__init__(fid=fid, sfid=sfid, name=name, desc=desc, parent=parent)
         self.size = size
         self.shell_commands = [self.ShellCommands()]
 
-    def decode_bin(self, raw_bin_data):
-        """Decode raw (binary) data into abstract representation. Overloaded by specific classes."""
+    def decode_bin(self, raw_bin_data:bytearray) -> dict:
+        """Decode raw (binary) data into abstract representation.
+
+        A derived class would typically provide a _decode_bin() or _decode_hex() method
+        for implementing this specifically for the given file. This function checks which
+        of the method exists, add calls them (with conversion, as needed).
+
+        Args:
+            raw_bin_data : binary encoded data
+        Returns:
+            abstract_data; dict representing the decoded data
+        """
         method = getattr(self, '_decode_bin', None)
         if callable(method):
             return method(raw_bin_data)
@@ -348,8 +451,18 @@
             return method(b2h(raw_bin_data))
         return {'raw': raw_bin_data.hex()}
 
-    def decode_hex(self, raw_hex_data):
-        """Decode raw (hex string) data into abstract representation. Overloaded by specific classes."""
+    def decode_hex(self, raw_hex_data:str) -> dict:
+        """Decode raw (hex string) data into abstract representation.
+
+        A derived class would typically provide a _decode_bin() or _decode_hex() method
+        for implementing this specifically for the given file. This function checks which
+        of the method exists, add calls them (with conversion, as needed).
+
+        Args:
+            raw_hex_data : hex-encoded data
+        Returns:
+            abstract_data; dict representing the decoded data
+        """
         method = getattr(self, '_decode_hex', None)
         if callable(method):
             return method(raw_hex_data)
@@ -359,8 +472,18 @@
             return method(raw_bin_data)
         return {'raw': raw_bin_data.hex()}
 
-    def encode_bin(self, abstract_data):
-        """Encode abstract representation into raw (binary) data. Overloaded by specific classes."""
+    def encode_bin(self, abstract_data:dict) -> bytearray:
+        """Encode abstract representation into raw (binary) data.
+
+        A derived class would typically provide an _encode_bin() or _encode_hex() method
+        for implementing this specifically for the given file. This function checks which
+        of the method exists, add calls them (with conversion, as needed).
+
+        Args:
+            abstract_data : dict representing the decoded data
+        Returns:
+            binary encoded data
+        """
         method = getattr(self, '_encode_bin', None)
         if callable(method):
             return method(abstract_data)
@@ -369,8 +492,18 @@
             return h2b(method(abstract_data))
         raise NotImplementedError
 
-    def encode_hex(self, abstract_data):
-        """Encode abstract representation into raw (hex string) data. Overloaded by specific classes."""
+    def encode_hex(self, abstract_data:dict) -> str:
+        """Encode abstract representation into raw (hex string) data.
+
+        A derived class would typically provide an _encode_bin() or _encode_hex() method
+        for implementing this specifically for the given file. This function checks which
+        of the method exists, add calls them (with conversion, as needed).
+
+        Args:
+            abstract_data : dict representing the decoded data
+        Returns:
+            hex string encoded data
+        """
         method = getattr(self, '_encode_hex', None)
         if callable(method):
             return method(abstract_data)
@@ -382,10 +515,14 @@
 
 
 class LinFixedEF(CardEF):
-    """Linear Fixed EF (Entry File) in the smart card filesystem"""
+    """Linear Fixed EF (Entry File) in the smart card filesystem.
+
+    Linear Fixed EFs are record oriented files.  They consist of a number of fixed-size
+    records.  The records can be individually read/updated."""
 
     @with_default_category('Linear Fixed EF Commands')
     class ShellCommands(CommandSet):
+        """Shell commands specific for Linear Fixed EFs."""
         def __init__(self):
             super().__init__()
 
@@ -432,13 +569,33 @@
             if data:
                 self._cmd.poutput(data)
 
-    def __init__(self, fid, sfid=None, name=None, desc=None, parent=None, rec_len={1,None}):
+    def __init__(self, fid:str, sfid:str=None, name:str=None, desc:str=None,
+                 parent:Optional[CardDF]=None, rec_len={1,None}):
+        """
+        Args:
+            fid : File Identifier (4 hex digits)
+            sfid : Short File Identifier (2 hex digits, optional)
+            name : Brief name of the file, lik EF_ICCID
+            desc : Descriptoin of the file
+            parent : Parent CardFile object within filesystem hierarchy
+            rec_len : tuple of (minimum_length, recommended_length)
+        """
         super().__init__(fid=fid, sfid=sfid, name=name, desc=desc, parent=parent)
         self.rec_len = rec_len
         self.shell_commands = [self.ShellCommands()]
 
-    def decode_record_hex(self, raw_hex_data):
-        """Decode raw (hex string) data into abstract representation. Overloaded by specific classes."""
+    def decode_record_hex(self, raw_hex_data:str) -> dict:
+        """Decode raw (hex string) data into abstract representation.
+
+        A derived class would typically provide a _decode_record_bin() or _decode_record_hex()
+        method for implementing this specifically for the given file. This function checks which
+        of the method exists, add calls them (with conversion, as needed).
+
+        Args:
+            raw_hex_data : hex-encoded data
+        Returns:
+            abstract_data; dict representing the decoded data
+        """
         method = getattr(self, '_decode_record_hex', None)
         if callable(method):
             return method(raw_hex_data)
@@ -448,8 +605,18 @@
             return method(raw_bin_data)
         return {'raw': raw_bin_data.hex()}
 
-    def decode_record_bin(self, raw_bin_data):
-        """Decode raw (binary) data into abstract representation. Overloaded by specific classes."""
+    def decode_record_bin(self, raw_bin_data:bytearray) -> dict:
+        """Decode raw (binary) data into abstract representation.
+
+        A derived class would typically provide a _decode_record_bin() or _decode_record_hex()
+        method for implementing this specifically for the given file. This function checks which
+        of the method exists, add calls them (with conversion, as needed).
+
+        Args:
+            raw_bin_data : binary encoded data
+        Returns:
+            abstract_data; dict representing the decoded data
+        """
         method = getattr(self, '_decode_record_bin', None)
         if callable(method):
             return method(raw_bin_data)
@@ -459,47 +626,90 @@
             return method(raw_hex_data)
         return {'raw': raw_hex_data}
 
-    def encode_record_hex(self, abstract_data):
-        """Encode abstract representation into raw (hex string) data. Overloaded by specific classes."""
+    def encode_record_hex(self, abstract_data:dict) -> str:
+        """Encode abstract representation into raw (hex string) data.
+
+        A derived class would typically provide an _encode_record_bin() or _encode_record_hex()
+        method for implementing this specifically for the given file. This function checks which
+        of the method exists, add calls them (with conversion, as needed).
+
+        Args:
+            abstract_data : dict representing the decoded data
+        Returns:
+            hex string encoded data
+        """
         method = getattr(self, '_encode_record_hex', None)
         if callable(method):
             return method(abstract_data)
         method = getattr(self, '_encode_record_bin', None)
         if callable(method):
             raw_bin_data = method(abstract_data)
-            return b2h(raww_bin_data)
+            return h2b(raw_bin_data)
         raise NotImplementedError
 
-    def encode_record_bin(self, abstract_data):
-        """Encode abstract representation into raw (binary) data. Overloaded by specific classes."""
+    def encode_record_bin(self, abstract_data:dict) -> bytearray:
+        """Encode abstract representation into raw (binary) data.
+
+        A derived class would typically provide an _encode_record_bin() or _encode_record_hex()
+        method for implementing this specifically for the given file. This function checks which
+        of the method exists, add calls them (with conversion, as needed).
+
+        Args:
+            abstract_data : dict representing the decoded data
+        Returns:
+            binary encoded data
+        """
         method = getattr(self, '_encode_record_bin', None)
         if callable(method):
             return method(abstract_data)
         method = getattr(self, '_encode_record_hex', None)
         if callable(method):
-            return b2h(method(abstract_data))
+            return h2b(method(abstract_data))
         raise NotImplementedError
 
 class CyclicEF(LinFixedEF):
     """Cyclic EF (Entry File) in the smart card filesystem"""
     # we don't really have any special support for those; just recycling LinFixedEF here
-    def __init__(self, fid, sfid=None, name=None, desc=None, parent=None, rec_len={1,None}):
+    def __init__(self, fid:str, sfid:str=None, name:str=None, desc:str=None, parent:CardDF=None,
+                 rec_len={1,None}):
         super().__init__(fid=fid, sfid=sfid, name=name, desc=desc, parent=parent, rec_len=rec_len)
 
 class TransRecEF(TransparentEF):
     """Transparent EF (Entry File) containing fixed-size records.
+
     These are the real odd-balls and mostly look like mistakes in the specification:
     Specified as 'transparent' EF, but actually containing several fixed-length records
     inside.
     We add a special class for those, so the user only has to provide encoder/decoder functions
     for a record, while this class takes care of split / merge of records.
     """
-    def __init__(self, fid, sfid=None, name=None, desc=None, parent=None, rec_len=None, size={1,None}):
+    def __init__(self, fid:str, sfid:str=None, name:str=None, desc:str=None,
+                 parent:Optional[CardDF]=None, rec_len:int=None, size={1,None}):
+        """
+        Args:
+            fid : File Identifier (4 hex digits)
+            sfid : Short File Identifier (2 hex digits, optional)
+            name : Brief name of the file, lik EF_ICCID
+            desc : Descriptoin of the file
+            parent : Parent CardFile object within filesystem hierarchy
+            rec_len : Length of the fixed-length records within transparent EF
+            size : tuple of (minimum_size, recommended_size)
+        """
         super().__init__(fid=fid, sfid=sfid, name=name, desc=desc, parent=parent, size=size)
         self.rec_len = rec_len
 
-    def decode_record_hex(self, raw_hex_data):
-        """Decode raw (hex string) data into abstract representation. Overloaded by specific classes."""
+    def decode_record_hex(self, raw_hex_data:str) -> dict:
+        """Decode raw (hex string) data into abstract representation.
+
+        A derived class would typically provide a _decode_record_bin() or _decode_record_hex()
+        method for implementing this specifically for the given file. This function checks which
+        of the method exists, add calls them (with conversion, as needed).
+
+        Args:
+            raw_hex_data : hex-encoded data
+        Returns:
+            abstract_data; dict representing the decoded data
+        """
         method = getattr(self, '_decode_record_hex', None)
         if callable(method):
             return method(raw_hex_data)
@@ -509,8 +719,18 @@
             return method(raw_bin_data)
         return {'raw': raw_hex_data}
 
-    def decode_record_bin(self, raw_bin_data):
-        """Decode raw (hex string) data into abstract representation. Overloaded by specific classes."""
+    def decode_record_bin(self, raw_bin_data:bytearray) -> dict:
+        """Decode raw (binary) data into abstract representation.
+
+        A derived class would typically provide a _decode_record_bin() or _decode_record_hex()
+        method for implementing this specifically for the given file. This function checks which
+        of the method exists, add calls them (with conversion, as needed).
+
+        Args:
+            raw_bin_data : binary encoded data
+        Returns:
+            abstract_data; dict representing the decoded data
+        """
         method = getattr(self, '_decode_record_bin', None)
         if callable(method):
             return method(raw_bin_data)
@@ -520,8 +740,18 @@
             return method(raw_hex_data)
         return {'raw': raw_hex_data}
 
-    def encode_record_hex(self, abstract_data):
-        """Encode abstract representation into raw (hex string) data. Overloaded by specific classes."""
+    def encode_record_hex(self, abstract_data:dict) -> str:
+        """Encode abstract representation into raw (hex string) data.
+
+        A derived class would typically provide an _encode_record_bin() or _encode_record_hex()
+        method for implementing this specifically for the given file. This function checks which
+        of the method exists, add calls them (with conversion, as needed).
+
+        Args:
+            abstract_data : dict representing the decoded data
+        Returns:
+            hex string encoded data
+        """
         method = getattr(self, '_encode_record_hex', None)
         if callable(method):
             return method(abstract_data)
@@ -530,8 +760,18 @@
             return h2b(method(abstract_data))
         raise NotImplementedError
 
-    def encode_record_bin(self, abstract_data):
-        """Encode abstract representation into raw (binary) data. Overloaded by specific classes."""
+    def encode_record_bin(self, abstract_data:dict) -> bytearray:
+        """Encode abstract representation into raw (binary) data.
+
+        A derived class would typically provide an _encode_record_bin() or _encode_record_hex()
+        method for implementing this specifically for the given file. This function checks which
+        of the method exists, add calls them (with conversion, as needed).
+
+        Args:
+            abstract_data : dict representing the decoded data
+        Returns:
+            binary encoded data
+        """
         method = getattr(self, '_encode_record_bin', None)
         if callable(method):
             return method(abstract_data)
@@ -540,11 +780,11 @@
             return h2b(method(abstract_data))
         raise NotImplementedError
 
-    def _decode_bin(self, raw_bin_data):
+    def _decode_bin(self, raw_bin_data:bytearray):
         chunks = [raw_bin_data[i:i+self.rec_len] for i in range(0, len(raw_bin_data), self.rec_len)]
         return [self.decode_record_bin(x) for x in chunks]
 
-    def _encode_bin(self, abstract_data):
+    def _encode_bin(self, abstract_data) -> bytes:
         chunks = [self.encode_record_bin(x) for x in abstract_data]
         # FIXME: pad to file size
         return b''.join(chunks)
@@ -555,7 +795,12 @@
 
 class RuntimeState(object):
     """Represent the runtime state of a session with a card."""
-    def __init__(self, card, profile):
+    def __init__(self, card, profile:'CardProfile'):
+        """
+        Args:
+            card : pysim.cards.Card instance
+            profile : CardProfile instance
+        """
         self.mf = CardMF()
         self.card = card
         self.selected_file = self.mf
@@ -589,15 +834,22 @@
             print("error: could not determine card applications")
         return apps_taken
 
-    def get_cwd(self):
-        """Obtain the current working directory."""
+    def get_cwd(self) -> CardDF:
+        """Obtain the current working directory.
+
+        Returns:
+            CardDF instance
+        """
         if isinstance(self.selected_file, CardDF):
             return self.selected_file
         else:
             return self.selected_file.parent
 
-    def get_application(self):
-        """Obtain the currently selected application (if any)."""
+    def get_application(self) -> Optional[CardADF]:
+        """Obtain the currently selected application (if any).
+
+        Returns:
+            CardADF() instance or None"""
         # iterate upwards from selected file; check if any is an ADF
         node = self.selected_file
         while node.parent != node:
@@ -606,9 +858,16 @@
             node = node.parent
         return None
 
-    def interpret_sw(self, sw):
-        """Interpret the given SW relative to the currently selected Application
-           or the underlying profile."""
+    def interpret_sw(self, sw:str):
+        """Interpret a given status word relative to the currently selected application
+        or the underlying card profile.
+
+        Args:
+            sw : Status word as string of 4 hexd digits
+
+        Returns:
+            Tuple of two strings
+        """
         app = self.get_application()
         if app:
             # The application either comes with its own interpret_sw
@@ -622,11 +881,9 @@
         else:
             return self.profile.interpret_sw(sw)
 
-    def probe_file(self, fid, cmd_app=None):
-        """
-	blindly try to select a file and automatically add a matching file
-	object if the file actually exists
-	"""
+    def probe_file(self, fid:str, cmd_app=None):
+        """Blindly try to select a file and automatically add a matching file
+	       object if the file actually exists."""
         if not is_hex(fid, 4, 4):
             raise ValueError("Cannot select unknown file by name %s, only hexadecimal 4 digit FID is allowed" % fid)
 
@@ -651,8 +908,13 @@
         self.selected_file = f
         return select_resp
 
-    def select(self, name, cmd_app=None):
-        """Change current directory"""
+    def select(self, name:str, cmd_app=None):
+        """Select a file (EF, DF, ADF, MF, ...).
+
+        Args:
+            name : Name of file to select
+            cmd_app : Command Application State (for unregistering old file commands)
+        """
         sels = self.selected_file.get_selectables()
         if is_hex(name):
             name = name.lower()
@@ -686,43 +948,98 @@
 
         return select_resp
 
-    def read_binary(self, length=None, offset=0):
+    def read_binary(self, length:int=None, offset:int=0):
+        """Read [part of] a transparent EF binary data.
+
+        Args:
+            length : Amount of data to read (None: as much as possible)
+            offset : Offset into the file from which to read 'length' bytes
+        Returns:
+            binary data read from the file
+        """
         if not isinstance(self.selected_file, TransparentEF):
             raise TypeError("Only works with TransparentEF")
         return self.card._scc.read_binary(self.selected_file.fid, length, offset)
 
-    def read_binary_dec(self):
+    def read_binary_dec(self) -> dict:
+        """Read [part of] a transparent EF binary data and decode it.
+
+        Args:
+            length : Amount of data to read (None: as much as possible)
+            offset : Offset into the file from which to read 'length' bytes
+        Returns:
+            abstract decode data read from the file
+        """
         (data, sw) = self.read_binary()
         dec_data = self.selected_file.decode_hex(data)
         print("%s: %s -> %s" % (sw, data, dec_data))
         return (dec_data, sw)
 
-    def update_binary(self, data_hex, offset=0):
+    def update_binary(self, data_hex:str, offset:int=0):
+        """Update transparent EF binary data.
+
+        Args:
+            data_hex : hex string of data to be written
+            offset : Offset into the file from which to write 'data_hex'
+        """
         if not isinstance(self.selected_file, TransparentEF):
             raise TypeError("Only works with TransparentEF")
         return self.card._scc.update_binary(self.selected_file.fid, data_hex, offset, conserve=self.conserve_write)
 
-    def update_binary_dec(self, data):
+    def update_binary_dec(self, data:dict):
+        """Update transparent EF from abstract data. Encodes the data to binary and
+        then updates the EF with it.
+
+        Args:
+            data : abstract data which is to be encoded and written
+        """
         data_hex = self.selected_file.encode_hex(data)
         print("%s -> %s" % (data, data_hex))
         return self.update_binary(data_hex)
 
-    def read_record(self, rec_nr=0):
+    def read_record(self, rec_nr:int=0):
+        """Read a record as binary data.
+
+        Args:
+            rec_nr : Record number to read
+        Returns:
+            hex string of binary data contained in record
+        """
         if not isinstance(self.selected_file, LinFixedEF):
             raise TypeError("Only works with Linear Fixed EF")
         # returns a string of hex nibbles
         return self.card._scc.read_record(self.selected_file.fid, rec_nr)
 
-    def read_record_dec(self, rec_nr=0):
+    def read_record_dec(self, rec_nr:int=0) -> Tuple[dict, str]:
+        """Read a record and decode it to abstract data.
+
+        Args:
+            rec_nr : Record number to read
+        Returns:
+            abstract data contained in record
+        """
         (data, sw) = self.read_record(rec_nr)
         return (self.selected_file.decode_record_hex(data), sw)
 
-    def update_record(self, rec_nr, data_hex):
+    def update_record(self, rec_nr:int, data_hex:str):
+        """Update a record with given binary data
+
+        Args:
+            rec_nr : Record number to read
+            data_hex : Hex string binary data to be written
+        """
         if not isinstance(self.selected_file, LinFixedEF):
             raise TypeError("Only works with Linear Fixed EF")
         return self.card._scc.update_record(self.selected_file.fid, rec_nr, data_hex, conserve=self.conserve_write)
 
-    def update_record_dec(self, rec_nr, data):
+    def update_record_dec(self, rec_nr:int, data:dict):
+        """Update a record with given abstract data.  Will encode abstract to binary data
+        and then write it to the given record on the card.
+
+        Args:
+            rec_nr : Record number to read
+            data_hex : Abstract data to be written
+        """
         hex_data = self.selected_file.encode_record_hex(data)
         return self.update_record(self, rec_nr, data_hex)
 
@@ -735,9 +1052,15 @@
         self.fcp = None
 
 
-def interpret_sw(sw_data, sw):
-    """Interpret a given status word within the profile.  Returns tuple of
-       two strings"""
+def interpret_sw(sw_data:dict, sw:str):
+    """Interpret a given status word.
+
+    Args:
+        sw_data : Hierarchical dict of status word matches
+        sw : status word to match (string of 4 hex digits)
+    Returns:
+        tuple of two strings (class_string, description)
+    """
     for class_str, swdict in sw_data.items():
         # first try direct match
         if sw in swdict:
@@ -751,7 +1074,12 @@
 class CardApplication(object):
     """A card application is represented by an ADF (with contained hierarchy) and optionally
        some SW definitions."""
-    def __init__(self, name, adf=None, sw=None):
+    def __init__(self, name, adf:str=None, sw:dict=None):
+        """
+        Args:
+            adf : ADF name
+            sw : Dict of status word conversions
+        """
         self.name = name
         self.adf = adf
         self.sw = sw or dict()
@@ -760,8 +1088,14 @@
         return "APP(%s)" % (self.name)
 
     def interpret_sw(self, sw):
-        """Interpret a given status word within the application.  Returns tuple of
-           two strings"""
+        """Interpret a given status word within the application.
+
+        Args:
+            sw : Status word as string of 4 hexd digits
+
+        Returns:
+            Tuple of two strings
+        """
         return interpret_sw(self.sw, sw)
 
 class CardProfile(object):
@@ -769,6 +1103,14 @@
        applications as well as profile-specific SW and shell commands.  Every card has
        one card profile, but there may be multiple applications within that profile."""
     def __init__(self, name, **kw):
+        """
+        Args:
+            desc (str) : Description
+            files_in_mf : List of CardEF instances present in MF
+            applications : List of CardApplications present on card
+            sw : List of status word definitions
+            shell_cmdsets : List of cmd2 shell command sets of profile-specific commands
+        """
         self.name = name
         self.desc = kw.get("desc", None)
         self.files_in_mf = kw.get("files_in_mf", [])
@@ -779,10 +1121,21 @@
     def __str__(self):
         return self.name
 
-    def add_application(self, app):
+    def add_application(self, app:CardApplication):
+        """Add an application to a card profile.
+
+        Args:
+            app : CardApplication instance to be added to profile
+        """
         self.applications.append(app)
 
-    def interpret_sw(self, sw):
-        """Interpret a given status word within the profile.  Returns tuple of
-           two strings"""
+    def interpret_sw(self, sw:str):
+        """Interpret a given status word within the profile.
+
+        Args:
+            sw : Status word as string of 4 hexd digits
+
+        Returns:
+            Tuple of two strings
+        """
         return interpret_sw(self.sw, sw)
diff --git a/pySim/transport/__init__.py b/pySim/transport/__init__.py
index d720259..f946af8 100644
--- a/pySim/transport/__init__.py
+++ b/pySim/transport/__init__.py
@@ -24,48 +24,53 @@
 #
 
 class LinkBase(object):
+	"""Base class for link/transport to card."""
 
-	def wait_for_card(self, timeout=None, newcardonly=False):
-		"""wait_for_card(): Wait for a card and connect to it
+	def wait_for_card(self, timeout:int=None, newcardonly:bool=False):
+		"""Wait for a card and connect to it
 
-		   timeout     : Maximum wait time (None=no timeout)
-		   newcardonly : Should we wait for a new card, or an already
-				 inserted one ?
+		Args:
+		   timeout : Maximum wait time in seconds (None=no timeout)
+		   newcardonly : Should we wait for a new card, or an already inserted one ?
 		"""
 		pass
 
 	def connect(self):
-		"""connect(): Connect to a card immediately
+		"""Connect to a card immediately
 		"""
 		pass
 
 	def disconnect(self):
-		"""disconnect(): Disconnect from card
+		"""Disconnect from card
 		"""
 		pass
 
 	def reset_card(self):
-		"""reset_card(): Resets the card (power down/up)
+		"""Resets the card (power down/up)
 		"""
 		pass
 
-	def send_apdu_raw(self, pdu):
-		"""send_apdu_raw(pdu): Sends an APDU with minimal processing
+	def send_apdu_raw(self, pdu:str):
+		"""Sends an APDU with minimal processing
 
-		   pdu    : string of hexadecimal characters (ex. "A0A40000023F00")
-		   return : tuple(data, sw), where
-			    data : string (in hex) of returned data (ex. "074F4EFFFF")
-			    sw   : string (in hex) of status word (ex. "9000")
+		Args:
+		   pdu : string of hexadecimal characters (ex. "A0A40000023F00")
+		Returns:
+		   tuple(data, sw), where
+				data : string (in hex) of returned data (ex. "074F4EFFFF")
+				sw   : string (in hex) of status word (ex. "9000")
 		"""
 		pass
 
 	def send_apdu(self, pdu):
-		"""send_apdu(pdu): Sends an APDU and auto fetch response data
+		"""Sends an APDU and auto fetch response data
 
-		   pdu    : string of hexadecimal characters (ex. "A0A40000023F00")
-		   return : tuple(data, sw), where
-			    data : string (in hex) of returned data (ex. "074F4EFFFF")
-			    sw   : string (in hex) of status word (ex. "9000")
+		Args:
+		   pdu : string of hexadecimal characters (ex. "A0A40000023F00")
+		Returns:
+		   tuple(data, sw), where
+				data : string (in hex) of returned data (ex. "074F4EFFFF")
+				sw   : string (in hex) of status word (ex. "9000")
 		"""
 		data, sw = self.send_apdu_raw(pdu)
 
@@ -82,15 +87,16 @@
 		return data, sw
 
 	def send_apdu_checksw(self, pdu, sw="9000"):
-		"""send_apdu_checksw(pdu,sw): Sends an APDU and check returned SW
+		"""Sends an APDU and check returned SW
 
-		   pdu    : string of hexadecimal characters (ex. "A0A40000023F00")
-		   sw     : string of 4 hexadecimal characters (ex. "9000"). The
-			    user may mask out certain digits using a '?' to add some
-			    ambiguity if needed.
-		   return : tuple(data, sw), where
-			    data : string (in hex) of returned data (ex. "074F4EFFFF")
-			    sw   : string (in hex) of status word (ex. "9000")
+		Args:
+		   pdu : string of hexadecimal characters (ex. "A0A40000023F00")
+		   sw : string of 4 hexadecimal characters (ex. "9000"). The user may mask out certain
+				digits using a '?' to add some ambiguity if needed.
+		Returns:
+			tuple(data, sw), where
+				data : string (in hex) of returned data (ex. "074F4EFFFF")
+				sw   : string (in hex) of status word (ex. "9000")
 		"""
 		rv = self.send_apdu(pdu)
 
diff --git a/pySim/transport/calypso.py b/pySim/transport/calypso.py
index 7f99d21..467d5ee 100644
--- a/pySim/transport/calypso.py
+++ b/pySim/transport/calypso.py
@@ -1,9 +1,5 @@
 # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
 
-""" pySim: Transport Link for Calypso bases phones
-"""
-
-#
 # Copyright (C) 2018 Vadim Yanitskiy <axilirator at gmail.com>
 #
 # This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
@@ -73,8 +69,9 @@
 		self.data += pdu
 
 class CalypsoSimLink(LinkBase):
+	"""Transport Link for Calypso based phones."""
 
-	def __init__(self, sock_path = "/tmp/osmocom_l2"):
+	def __init__(self, sock_path:str = "/tmp/osmocom_l2"):
 		# Make sure that a given socket path exists
 		if not os.path.exists(sock_path):
 			raise ReaderError("There is no such ('%s') UNIX socket" % sock_path)
@@ -119,7 +116,6 @@
 		pass # Nothing to do really ...
 
 	def send_apdu_raw(self, pdu):
-		"""see LinkBase.send_apdu_raw"""
 
 		# Request FULL reset
 		req_msg = L1CTLMessageSIM(h2b(pdu))
diff --git a/pySim/transport/modem_atcmd.py b/pySim/transport/modem_atcmd.py
index 86d4443..fccd388 100644
--- a/pySim/transport/modem_atcmd.py
+++ b/pySim/transport/modem_atcmd.py
@@ -1,8 +1,5 @@
 # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
 
-""" pySim: Transport Link for 3GPP TS 27.007 compliant modems
-"""
-
 # Copyright (C) 2020 Vadim Yanitskiy <axilirator at gmail.com>
 #
 # This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
@@ -31,7 +28,8 @@
 # log.root.setLevel(log.DEBUG)
 
 class ModemATCommandLink(LinkBase):
-	def __init__(self, device='/dev/ttyUSB0', baudrate=115200):
+	"""Transport Link for 3GPP TS 27.007 compliant modems."""
+	def __init__(self, device:str='/dev/ttyUSB0', baudrate:int=115200):
 		self._sl = serial.Serial(device, baudrate, timeout=5)
 		self._device = device
 		self._atr = None
diff --git a/pySim/transport/pcsc.py b/pySim/transport/pcsc.py
index 2c2cbb9..f08f71a 100644
--- a/pySim/transport/pcsc.py
+++ b/pySim/transport/pcsc.py
@@ -1,9 +1,5 @@
 # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
 
-""" pySim: PCSC reader transport link
-"""
-
-#
 # Copyright (C) 2009-2010  Sylvain Munaut <tnt at 246tNt.com>
 # Copyright (C) 2010  Harald Welte <laforge at gnumonks.org>
 #
@@ -32,8 +28,9 @@
 
 
 class PcscSimLink(LinkBase):
+	""" pySim: PCSC reader transport link."""
 
-	def __init__(self, reader_number=0):
+	def __init__(self, reader_number:int=0):
 		r = readers()
 		self._reader = r[reader_number]
 		self._con = self._reader.createConnection()
@@ -46,7 +43,7 @@
 			pass
 		return
 
-	def wait_for_card(self, timeout=None, newcardonly=False):
+	def wait_for_card(self, timeout:int=None, newcardonly:bool=False):
 		cr = CardRequest(readers=[self._reader], timeout=timeout, newcardonly=newcardonly)
 		try:
 			cr.waitforcard()
@@ -75,7 +72,6 @@
 		return 1
 
 	def send_apdu_raw(self, pdu):
-		"""see LinkBase.send_apdu_raw"""
 
 		apdu = h2i(pdu)
 
diff --git a/pySim/transport/serial.py b/pySim/transport/serial.py
index 03d3f38..6d39303 100644
--- a/pySim/transport/serial.py
+++ b/pySim/transport/serial.py
@@ -1,9 +1,5 @@
 # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
 
-""" pySim: Transport Link for serial (RS232) based readers included with simcard
-"""
-
-#
 # Copyright (C) 2009-2010  Sylvain Munaut <tnt at 246tNt.com>
 #
 # This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
@@ -30,8 +26,10 @@
 
 
 class SerialSimLink(LinkBase):
+	""" pySim: Transport Link for serial (RS232) based readers included with simcard"""
 
-	def __init__(self, device='/dev/ttyUSB0', baudrate=9600, rst='-rts', debug=False):
+	def __init__(self, device:str='/dev/ttyUSB0', baudrate:int=9600, rst:str='-rts',
+				 debug:bool=False):
 		if not os.path.exists(device):
 			raise ValueError("device file %s does not exist -- abort" % device)
 		self._sl = serial.Serial(
@@ -183,7 +181,6 @@
 		return self._sl.read()
 
 	def send_apdu_raw(self, pdu):
-		"""see LinkBase.send_apdu_raw"""
 
 		pdu = h2b(pdu)
 		data_len = ord(pdu[4])	# P3
diff --git a/pySim/utils.py b/pySim/utils.py
index 0848b01..607526c 100644
--- a/pySim/utils.py
+++ b/pySim/utils.py
@@ -21,43 +21,65 @@
 #
 
 
-def h2b(s):
+def h2b(s: str) -> bytearray:
 	"""convert from a string of hex nibbles to a sequence of bytes"""
 	return bytearray.fromhex(s)
 
-def b2h(b):
+def b2h(b: bytearray) -> str:
 	"""convert from a sequence of bytes to a string of hex nibbles"""
 	return ''.join(['%02x'%(x) for x in b])
 
-def h2i(s):
+def h2i(s:str):
+	"""convert from a string of hex nibbles to a list of integers"""
 	return [(int(x,16)<<4)+int(y,16) for x,y in zip(s[0::2], s[1::2])]
 
-def i2h(s):
+def i2h(s) -> str:
+	"""convert from a list of integers to a string of hex nibbles"""
 	return ''.join(['%02x'%(x) for x in s])
 
-def h2s(s):
+def h2s(s:str) -> str:
+	"""convert from a string of hex nibbles to an ASCII string"""
 	return ''.join([chr((int(x,16)<<4)+int(y,16)) for x,y in zip(s[0::2], s[1::2])
 						      if int(x + y, 16) != 0xff])
 
-def s2h(s):
+def s2h(s:str) -> str:
+	"""convert from an ASCII string to a string of hex nibbles"""
 	b = bytearray()
 	b.extend(map(ord, s))
 	return b2h(b)
 
 # List of bytes to string
-def i2s(s):
+def i2s(s) -> str:
+	"""convert from a list of integers to an ASCII string"""
 	return ''.join([chr(x) for x in s])
 
-def swap_nibbles(s):
+def swap_nibbles(s:str) -> str:
+	"""swap the nibbles in a hex string"""
 	return ''.join([x+y for x,y in zip(s[1::2], s[0::2])])
 
-def rpad(s, l, c='f'):
+def rpad(s:str, l:int, c='f') -> str:
+	"""pad string on the right side.
+	Args:
+		s : string to pad
+		l : total length to pad to
+		c : padding character
+	Returns:
+		String 's' padded with as many 'c' as needed to reach total length of 'l'
+	"""
 	return s + c * (l - len(s))
 
-def lpad(s, l, c='f'):
+def lpad(s:str, l:int, c='f') -> str:
+	"""pad string on the left side.
+	Args:
+		s : string to pad
+		l : total length to pad to
+		c : padding character
+	Returns:
+		String 's' padded with as many 'c' as needed to reach total length of 'l'
+	"""
 	return c * (l - len(s)) + s
 
-def half_round_up(n):
+def half_round_up(n:int) -> int:
 	return (n + 1)//2
 
 # IMSI encoded format:
@@ -75,8 +97,8 @@
 # Because of this, an odd length IMSI fits exactly into len(imsi) + 1 // 2 bytes, whereas an
 # even length IMSI only uses half of the last byte.
 
-def enc_imsi(imsi):
-	"""Converts a string imsi into the value of the EF"""
+def enc_imsi(imsi:str):
+	"""Converts a string IMSI into the encoded value of the EF"""
 	l = half_round_up(len(imsi) + 1)	# Required bytes - include space for odd/even indicator
 	oe = len(imsi) & 1			# Odd (1) / Even (0)
 	ei = '%02x' % l + swap_nibbles('%01x%s' % ((oe<<3)|1, rpad(imsi, 15)))
@@ -781,7 +803,7 @@
 
 	return None
 
-def sw_match(sw, pattern):
+def sw_match(sw:str, pattern:str) -> str:
 	"""Match given SW against given pattern."""
 	# Create a masked version of the returned status word
 	sw_lower = sw.lower()
@@ -796,8 +818,18 @@
 	# Compare the masked version against the pattern
 	return sw_masked == pattern
 
-def tabulate_str_list(str_list, width = 79, hspace = 2, lspace = 1, align_left = True):
-	"""Pretty print a list of strings into a tabulated form"""
+def tabulate_str_list(str_list, width:int = 79, hspace:int = 2, lspace:int = 1,
+					  align_left:bool = True):
+	"""Pretty print a list of strings into a tabulated form.
+
+	Args:
+		width : total width in characters per line
+		space : horizontal space between cells
+		lspace : number of spaces before row
+		align_lef : Align text to the left side
+	Returns:
+		multi-line string containing formatted table
+	"""
 	if str_list == None:
 		return ""
 	if len(str_list) <= 0:

-- 
To view, visit https://gerrit.osmocom.org/c/pysim/+/23577
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Gerrit-Project: pysim
Gerrit-Branch: master
Gerrit-Change-Id: I6ac88e0662cf3c56ae32d86d50b18a8b4150571a
Gerrit-Change-Number: 23577
Gerrit-PatchSet: 4
Gerrit-Owner: laforge <laforge at osmocom.org>
Gerrit-Reviewer: Jenkins Builder
Gerrit-Reviewer: dexter <pmaier at sysmocom.de>
Gerrit-Reviewer: fixeria <vyanitskiy at sysmocom.de>
Gerrit-Reviewer: herlesupreeth <herlesupreeth at gmail.com>
Gerrit-Reviewer: laforge <laforge at osmocom.org>
Gerrit-Reviewer: merlinchlosta <merlin.chlosta at rub.de>
Gerrit-Reviewer: pespin <pespin at sysmocom.de>
Gerrit-Reviewer: tnt <tnt at 246tNt.com>
Gerrit-MessageType: merged
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